Exhibit 14

Berkeley Plantation – independence for some

A seat of power and influence

Berkeley PlantationBerkeley Plantation, which is open daily for house tours, may have more significant connections to 18th and 19th century American politics than any other plantation in America. Her enslaved families waited upon a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bathed and cradled a future president, and then watched as another president came to review an encamped army of more than 100,000 Union soldiers. Berkeley slaves lived lives of dramatic contrast -- powerless in this seat of power. Photo courtesy Berkeley Plantation.


Benjamin Harrison VBenjamin Harrison V (1726 -1791) was born and died at Berkeley. He was a member of the House of Burgesses and the Continental Congress, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a governor of Virginia. He also was the owner of 110 slaves. Miniature painting courtesy Virginia Museum of History and Cultures, Richmond, Va. virginiahistory.org


US ConstitutionDespite Harrison’s ardent support for the patriot cause, he opposed ratification of the Constitution – as did certain other Virginia politicians -- because it allowed the continued importation of slaves for 20 years and because it did not (at the time of ratification) contain a bill of rights. Opposition to the importation clause most likely was not based on humanitarian grounds, but upon the fact that Virginia already had more slaves than it needed and was beginning to export them in the domestic slave trade.


Harrison inventoryWhen Benjamin Harrison V died in 1791, an inventory was completed of his slaves. The format of this inventory is unique among the surviving Charles City slave inventories. In the inventory slaves are listed in a sort of genealogical style with a progenitor listed first and descendants following. Thus, the inventory begins with a superannuated slave who is valued at nothing. In contrast, the customary Charles City slave inventory records men first, from most valuable to least valuable, then women listed in a similar way, followed by children with superannuated or so-called “worthless” slaves listed last. Charles City County Will Book 1789-1808 courtesy Library of Virginia Archives.


Berkeley Plantation Gift Shop and Kitchen (previously Laundry)Berkeley Plantation slave quarters were burned during the Civil War. The only surviving out-buildings are a guest house (pictured here), which now houses the Gift Shop and a laundry/kitchen which stands to the west of the house. Domestic slaves were quartered on the second story of the kitchen/laundry building. Photo courtesy Judy Ledbetter.


slave churchApproximately 30 Berkeley slaves appear on a membership roll of Charles City Baptist Church begun in 1791. The meeting house was located about eight miles to the north in the vicinity of the Action at Nance’s Shop historical marker. On the typical Virginia plantation sundown Saturday to sunrise Monday was considered to be the slave’s own time. For particular purposes slaves might be authorized by their owners to travel off the plantation. Travel to Charles City Baptist Church evidently was one of those particular purposes. Image courtesy Library of Congress.


William T. Leavell, rector of Westover Parish (1839-53)William T. Leavell, rector of Westover Parish (1839-53) also ministered to Berkeley slaves. His private journal records numerous baptisms and burials at Berkeley, including one burial in which the funeral was “marched, “suggesting some sort of processional possibly of African origin. Photo courtesy Westover Church.


William Henry HarrisonNorth BendWilliam Henry Harrison, youngest son of Benjamin Harrison V, embarked on a military career that led to the North West Territory. Harrison went on to serve as the military governor of the territory and as the ninth President of the United States. His campaign for office with the famous log cabin and cider barrel suggested a much more humble origin than the one he had enjoyed as the son of a slave-holding scion of Virginia politics. Harrison image courtesy National Archives; Campaign image courtesy Charles City County Richard M. Bowman Center for Local History.


next: The Union army encamped and a presidential visit